Facts & Figures

This page provides a brief introduction to various aspects of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia:


Green background, with in white letters the Muslim creed in Arabic: “There is no god but God:
Muhammad is the Messenger of God.”

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A date palm, representing vitality and growth, and two crossed swords, symbolizing justice and
strength rooted in faith.


Southwest Asia, at the crossroads of Europe, Asia and Africa; extending from the Red Sea in the
west to the Arabian Gulf in the east; bordered on the north by Jordan, Iraq and Kuwait, on the
south, by Yemen and Oman, and on the east by the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain.


Varied; fairly barren and harsh, with salt flats, gravel plains and sand deserts; a few
man-made lakes but no permanent streams; in the south, the Rub Al-Khali (Empty Quarter),
the largest sand desert in the world; in the southwest, mountain ranges of over 9,000

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June through August, over 110 degrees Fahrenheit midday in the desert; humidity in coastal
regions up to 100 percent; elsewhere, mild; possible winter temperatures in the northern and
central regions dropping below freezing; rainfall, from none at all for up to 10 years in the
Rub Al-Khali, to 20 inches a year in the mountains of Asir Province.


31.7 million, including nearly 11.5 million expatriates (2016 estimate).


Islam, which is the basis of the legal system and of government.


Arabic; English widely spoken in urban areas.

National Day

September 23, commemorating the foundation of the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.


King Abdulaziz bin Abdelrahman Al-Saud, the founder (1932-1963), followed by his sons: King Saud
(1953-64), King Faisal (1964-75), King Khalid (1975-82), King Fahd (1982-2005), King Abdullah
(2005-2015) and the current ruler, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz.


Islamic state based on principles prescribed by the Qur’an (Islam’s Holy Book) and the
Shari’ah (Islamic law); Provincial Council System, Consultative Council (Majlis
Al-Shura), and Council of Ministers.

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Greenwich Mean Time plus three (GMT+3) equals Eastern Standard Time plus eight (seven during
Daylight Savings Time).


Islamic (Hijrah), dating from emigration of the Prophet Muhammad from Makkah to Madinah;
weekend, Friday and Saturday.

The 12 months of the Islamic Lunar Year

Muharram, Safar, Rabi’ Al-Awal, Rabi’ Al-Akher, Jumada Al-Awal, Jumada Al-Akher, Rajab, Sha’ban,
Ramadan, Shawwal. Dhu Al-Qadah , Dhu Al-Hajjah .


Closure of all offices and schools on Eid Al-Fitr, the feast of the breaking of the fast, from
the evening of the twenty-fifth day of Ramadan through the fifth day of Shawwal; Eid Al-Adha,
the culmination of the Hajj, from the fifth through fifteenth day of Dhu Al-Hajjah; and
September 23, National Day.


Government offices Sunday through Thursday from 7:30 am to 2:30 pm; private businesses from 8:00
am to noon and 3:00 pm to 6:00 pm; general banking from 8:00 am until noon and from 5:00 pm
until 8:00 pm and markets and shops from 8:00 am until 10:00 pm.


Saudi Riyal (SR) pegged to U.S. dollar ($1=SR3.745); bank notes, in Arabic and English,
in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 riyals; coins in denominations of 5, 10,
25, 50 and 100 halalahs, with 100 halalahs equal to one riyal; metric system in use.

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